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Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence

Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence

There are many words that can be associated with aging and intelligence. Memory stereotypes that come with age can be negative or positive. Negative age-related words include decline, senile, dementia, forgets, confusion, incompetent, and diseased (Hening, 2019). While positive age-related words are wise, accomplished, enlightened, insightful, and alert (Hening, 2019). One of the greatest concerns facing those in or approaching geriatric years is the search for how senescent effects crystallized and fluid intelligence, thereby warding off negative age-related memory concepts and promoting positive age-related memory beliefs. Fluid intelligence (Gf), as defined by Nur Cayirdag, “is the ability to solve novel problems with little to no previous knowledge” (2020). Crystallized intelligence (Gc) “reflects accumulated past experience and the effects of socialization” (Moody & Sasser, 2018). Therefore, general intelligence (G) consists of Gf and Gc (Ghisletta & Lecerf, 2019). It is reasonable to deduce that Gf must occur in order for Gc to take permanence. Proverbs 2:6 ESVsolidifies the concept that in order for Gc to occur, Gf must first happen, “For the Lord gives wisdom; from his mouth come knowledge and understanding.”

The degree to which fluid and crystallized intelligence are impacted is not marked by a chronological age but more by a time frame of years. There is no consensus for ages grouped by time frame. Essentially, this leaves one to conclude that today’s concept of age differed greatly from a century ago when many did not survive past the age of 50 years. Therefore, in today’s technological society, childhood includes the years up to age 18, lending to fledgling adulthood for those 19 to 30 years of age, running into middle adulthood with ages from 31 to 50, blending into older adulthood of 51 to 65 years flowing into later senescent for 66 to 80 and so forth. Creativity, though linked to Gf, is greatest in the childhood years due to unadulterated societal norms (Moody & Sasser, 2018). Ghisletta and Lecerf (2019) assert that childhood research indicates that Gf and Gc expand during this time frame. However, Gf begins to stabilize or abate in fledgling adulthood while Gc stabilizes, possibly expanding, into senior adulthood. Levy and Langer (2018) concluded that “creativity influences aging and longevity” through the compounds of attending creative events such as concerts, plays, and museum visits while maintaining cultural activities into geriatric adulthood. However, the definition of creativity, wisdom, and intelligence is elusive and remains malleable, with every society offering a different definition. The same can be said for chronological age compared to time frame. Not everyone ages the same genetically, leaving societal definitions and classifications of age to each society.

One of the greatest benefits of aging is the acquisition of wisdom. Here again, senescent does mean that one will “become” wise as age increases. What one society labels wise may be another society’s definition of stupidity. Moody and Sasser (2018) confirm that common sense, aka everyday intelligence, “involves pragmatic or social judgement, which is more than abstract reasoning.” Wisdom comes from expert life preparation that is established through past pragmatic problem-solving (Moody & Sasser, 2018). “It is certainly not simple to measure the two broadest abilities in adults; with respect to Gc abilities because of the influence of experience, interest, motivation, professional skills, and years since schooling (on which most general Gc tests are based, like vocabulary); and as for Gf abilities, especially in older adults, processing speed generally decreases during adulthood, and most Gf tasks are timed, which leads to confounds between the two classes of cognitive tasks” (Ghisletta & Lecerf, 2019). Important and honoured achievements involve time which involves economic and creative investments lending to the concept that expertise can only be developed through years of experience, as Gc would expect (Cayirdag, 2020).

Recent neuroscience research has provided proof that the brain has the capacity to create neurons throughout one’s lifespan. With fluid and crystallized intelligence intertwined, it must be noted that Gf and Gc expand into adulthood, with Gc flourishing during the entire span of adulthood while Gf crests in adolescence while diminishing progressively with onset between 30 to 40 years of age (Cherry, 2019). Declines in intelligence are minimal as one ages due to the increase in older adults’ experience when compared to younger ages’ creativity.

In closing, there are many theories, studies and speculations regarding intelligence, cognitive abilities, wisdom, achievement, and cognitive functioning throughout one’s lifespan. Fluid intelligence (Gf) and crystallized intelligence (Gc) are intertwined, with Gf decreasing with age and Gc increasing with age. This phenomenon can be attributed to recent brain neuroscience that revealed that the brain creates neurons throughout one’s lifetime. Regardless of what science is telling us today, there is a real possibility that today’s factual information will be tomorrow’s rubbish to be laughed at. In order to age successfully, one must maintain health, physical activity, and cognitive processes to ward off the negative stereotypes surrounding senescence.


Cayirdag, N. (2020). Time expertise as time invested. Retrieved from

Cherry, K. (2019, December 07). What are fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence? Retrieved from

Ghisletta, P., & Lecerf, T. (2019, October 22). Crystallized and fluid intelligence. Retrieved from 0-0207.xml

Henig, R. M. (2019, July 29). Positive attitudes about aging may pay off in better health. Retrieved from

Levy, B., & Langer, E. (2018). Aging and creativity. In Aging: Concepts and controversies (9th ed., pp. 126-131). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Moody, H. R., & Sasser, J. R. (2018). Controversy 3 do intelligence and creativity decline with age? In Aging: Concepts and controversies (9th ed., pp. 97-132). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Roberts, E. (2019, December 07). Very well fluid intelligence crystallized intelligence. Retrieved from


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Assessment Description
For this assignment, select a peer-reviewed journal article relating to an area of problem-solving, decision-making, or an intelligence theory that was discussed in class (e.g., fluid or crystalline intelligence, primary/secondary reinforcers, biases, or effective problem-solving strategies).

Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence

Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence

The article must meet the following criteria:

The article must be from a peer-reviewed journal.
The article must be obtained from the GCU Library.
The article must be a research study rather than a literature review (i.e., the article has to have methods, results, and discussion sections).
The article must utilize a cognitive or behavioural theory, model, or effect.
The purpose of this article review is to get you to think critically about an area of cognition or learning. After reading your chosen article, address the following questions. Use subheadings to differentiate between the various aspects of your review.

Major Findings/Conclusions:

Be sure to include the major findings of the study.
What conclusions did the researchers draw from the data?
Implications for the Field of Psychology (how the findings could be used/applied in the field):

Include how the results of the study can be applied (e.g., why are the findings of the study important?). These may be the implications the authors put forth or your own ideas (be sure to cite if they are not your ideas).
How would psychology/education/counselling professionals benefit (learn) from the findings?
How might the results improve knowledge or application in the field? What should psychology professionals “take away” from the findings?

Describe the basics of how the study was conducted. What procedures were used?
Who were the participants?
Strengths/Limitations of the Study:

Include at least one strength AND one limitation you saw in the study.
Explain why you believe each is a strength or limitation. Hint: study findings are not “strengths” in and of themselves.
The article review should be 1,000-1,250 words. Include a minimum of three scholarly articles.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competency:

BS Psychology

4.4: Explain the importance of maintaining knowledge of current trends in psychology.

Topic 8 Participation

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