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Week 1-Discussion 2 Response

Week 1-Discussion 2 Response

Thank you for sharing your post. Ideas about the structure of the cell have changed over the years. Early biologists believed that cells were simple membranous sacs containing fluid with a few floating particles. Today, biologists are aware that cells are more complex than they initially thought. There are different shapes, sizes, and types of cells in the body. According to Hart & Neet (2016), a cell comprises three parts: the cytoplasm, the nucleus, and the cell membrane. Viruses are simple nucleic acid packets, either DNA or RNA. These are surrounded by a protein shell and sometimes lipids. A virus is a dormant particle outside a living cell and lacks the raw materials for reproduction. It is not until it enters a host cell does it go into action. The virus takes over the cell’s metabolic machinery to replicate itself, which may eventually break free from the infected cells or sometimes bud off a cell membrane. This lack of self-sufficiency implies that it is impossible to culture the virus cells in any artificial media for the development of vaccines or for research purposes (Dimmock et al., 2016). An example of a disease caused by virus cells is COVID-19.

Most bacteria have a single circular molecule of DNA that encodes the necessary genes for purposes of reproduction and other functions of the cell. Sometimes, the bacteria may have accessory small DNA rings referred to as plasmids, which encode for specific functions such as antibiotic resistance. Unlike the more complex life forms, bacteria possess a single set of chromosomes rather than two. The bacterial cells reproduce through cell division in a process referred to as binary fission, with the offspring being identical with the exact genetic material (Dimmock et al., 2016). An example of a bacterial infection is tuberculosis


Dimmock, N. J., Easton, A. J., & Leppard, K. N. (2016). Introduction to modern virology. John Wiley & Sons.

Hart, G. W., & Neet, K. E. (2016). Molecular cell biology. Acad. Press, Elsevier.


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Week 1-Discussion 2 Response

  • Length: A minimum of 200 words per post, not including references
  • Citations: At least one high-level scholarly reference in APA per post from within the last 5 years

Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. It consists of many parts that vary proportionally in different roles and functions. However, cells communicate with each other and connect to form tissues. Tissues come together to form organs; while organs functions in combination to form a system. According to Dlugasch and Story (2020), knowledge of cellular-level mechanisms, genetics, genomics, and epigenetics have led to scientific breakthroughs in understanding diseases, disease processes, and treatments. in Dlugacsh and Story (2020), the basic component of a cell includes the Cytoplasm, organelles (including the nucleus ), and the cell membrane. The cytoplasm does not only serve as a support for the internal cellular structure, but it also serves as a medium for where cellular work and exchange takes place. The nucleus, being the control center of the cell is the largest and the most prominent cellular compartment and contains all genetic information (DNA). Mitochondria are known as the energy house, lysosome functions to digest materials engulfed by the cell, etc. As there many other components of the cell with different functions. They also have the ability to exchange materials with their immediate surrounding, obtain energy from organic nutrients, synthesize complex molecules and replicate themselves.

Case study

Week 1-Discussion 2 Response

Week 1-Discussion 2 Response

A 72-year-old male presents with a reduced ejection fraction, D/T left ventricular hypertrophy.
1. What is the most likely cause of left ventricular hypertrophy?
Cellular hypertrophy occurs when there is an increase in the size of the cell, not numbers. Ventricular hypertrophy occurs mostly either due to hypertension, Aortic stenosis, and athletic training

2. How does this type of cellular adaptation relate to the inability of heart muscle cells to undergo division?
Cellular adaption happens in many forms. The heart muscle of an adult human is incapable of reproducing. Therefore, with left ventricular hypertrophy, the heart cells increase in size as a means to compensate for the chronic pressure.
3. Briefly explain how cellular adaptation provides an “advantage” to the heart muscle; and, explain how cellular adaptation may ultimately contribute to heart “failure” if the underlying stress is not reversed.
During the initial process, as cardiomyocytes increases in size, BP and other causes of LVH tends to be regulated, maintaining stability in the vasculature. According to Cohen (2019), exercise helps your heart muscle become more efficient and better able to pump blood throughout your body. The heart pushes out more blood with each beat, allowing it to beat slower and keep your blood pressure under control. As the chronic pressure in the vasculature continues to over labor the walls of the left ventricle, eventually the walls lose their flexibility to be filled with blood and pump the blood. Hence, heart failure.4. Describe cellular adaptations that occur during atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and metaplasia and identify conditions when each can occur.
Atrophy- According to Dlugasch and Story (2020), atrophy occurs due to decrease work demand on the cell which may be as a result of disuse, inadequate nutrition, endocrine hypofunction, and ischemia. An example of atrophy is muscle shrinkage in an extremity that has an immobilizing cast.
Hypertrophy- Increase in size of the cells not numbers. Leading to an increase in the size of the affected organ or tissue. It is the opposite of Atrophy. An example is Left ventricular hypertrophy.
Hyperplasia- is the increase in the number of cells, not size. Leading to an increase in the size of the affected organ or tissue. It only occurs in cells that can perform miotic division. An example is wound healing.
Dysplasia- here, the cell mutates into cells of different sizes, shapes, and appearances. This cell mutation is abnormal but may be reversed. Common in the reproductive and respiratory tracts.
Metaplasia- the process by which adult cells are replaced by other less matured cells. Often as a result of chronic irritation or inflammation. Common in the airway due to chronic smoking.

Cohen, A. (2019). Exercise helps your heart | Kaiser Permanente Washington. Retrieved from %2FhealthAndWellness%2Fconditions%2FheartDisease%2FexerciseBenefit.html

Dlugasch, L., & Story, L. (2020). Applied pathophysiology for the advanced practice nurse. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.

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