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Self-efficacy and Individualist vs. Collectivist cultures

Self-efficacy and Individualist vs. Collectivist cultures

This week, I’ll be discussing the two cultures of individualists and collectivists, comparing and contrasting their similarities and differences. Because I lack prior knowledge on the subject, my decision to pursue this topic is purely academic in nature. Researching these topics and gaining a more understanding perspective will provide me with a better opportunity to perceive different cultural concepts of belief and values. This is an important topic for me to research because it will help me understand others in my future endeavors while advancing my career.

Explanation and Definition

Individualistic cultures can be defined as a social pattern in which individuals view themselves as self-sufficient and place a greater emphasis on personal achievements, motivated by their own needs and preferences over those of others (Ogihara, 2017, p. 695). Collectivist cultures are defined as the beliefs, goals, needs, and behaviors of a group as a whole rather than the desires of a single person (Darwish & Huber, 2013, p. 48). Individualistic cultures are motivated primarily by personal gain, whereas collectivist cultures are motivated primarily by the end results of group goals. Long-term relationships are more important to collectivists, and people in this culture will sacrifice personal gain for the success of the group or team.

Summary of the Article

Hagger et al. (2014) discuss the preference in group settings where members want other members to have collectivist cultural behavior and mindset over those with individualistic cultural behavior mindset. A study was conducted in this article to test British and Chinese participants and compare the differences and effects of using both cultures in a group setting. The first part of the study was a group norm manipulation in which participants were shown a video depicting the work philosophy of the company for which they currently work. There were two videos, but only one was shown in each group. One video focused on individualistic normative with minimal interaction, whereas the other video focused on collectivist norms with more interaction, both verbally and nonverbally. After watching the videos, the participants were given statements based on their group norm, individualistic or collectivist, and were instructed to rate the employees’ behavior in the video on a 9-point scale ranging from (1) individualistic to (9) collectivist. Throughout the study, it was discovered that both groups had their own limitations and disadvantages, as well as positive feedback and advantages. These participants’ responses were used as a manipulation check. These manipulation checks were then used as the dependent variable in a test to determine the success of the manipulations and group characterizations. The article includes results from both groups, individualistic and collectivist. Following the completion of the experimental results, it was discovered that collectivist behaviors were rated higher than individualistic behaviors. The study discovered evidence that collectivist behaviors would have a greater positive impact in sports or educational contexts than individualistic behaviors.

Discussion

Individualistic and collectivist behaviors are displayed in everyday life, even in the most mundane tasks. This article is important for a variety of reasons, and it was the most interesting article I found while researching this topic. The preceding article is pertinent to the topic because it demonstrates the differences between individualistic and collectivist behaviors and how one is preferred over the other. During the study, two groups were separated, each with one of the behaviors, and were instructed to rate the video played in front of them. The article discusses the importance of both individualistic and collectivist behaviors, and the study reveals differences between the two behaviors and which groups of people prefer one over the other. Reading the study and viewing the experimental results was interesting because it demonstrated cultural differences, but it also compared the results of British and Chinese participants.

Each of the works cited below is pertinent to the discussion of individualistic and collectivist cultures. The article by Aliyev and Wagner (2017) relates to this topic by conducting a survey in a setting that deals with luxury items, primarily luxury automobiles. This study compares the differences in people who buy luxury vehicles versus those who do not see the need for them in order to discover a pattern of which cultures are more prone to purchasing luxury items. Darwish and Huber (2013) compare cultures from around the world to discuss the topic at hand. This article was extremely interesting because it demonstrates how different cultures view these topics and how people from all over interact in specific situations with these cultural mindsets. Ogihara (2017) was another intriguing article that I chose to relate to the topic because it was a study conducted solely in Japan, but it discusses how Japan is shaping itself to be more of an individualistic country and moving away from the collectivist lifestyle. Every reference in this discussion brings something unique to the table in relation to the topic I chose. This week, I really enjoyed researching for this discussion board because I got to see how different countries interact and which prefer to be social and which prefer to be independent and work alone.

References

Aliyev, F., & Wagner, R. (2017). Cultural influence on luxury value perceptions: Collectivist vs. individualist luxury perceptions. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 30(3), 158-172. doi:10.1080/08961530.2017.1381872

Darwish, A. F. E., & Huber, G. L. (2013). Individualism vs. collectivism in different cultures: A cross-cultural study. Intercultural Education, 14(4), 47-56. doi:10.1080/14675980320000044647

Hagger, M. S., Rentzelas, P., & Koch, S. (2014). Evaluating group member behavior under individualist and collectivist norms: A cross-cultural comparison. Small Group Research, 45(2), 217-228. doi:10.1177/1046496414525479

Ogihara, Y. (2017). Temporal changes in individualism and their ramification in Japan: Rising individualism and conflicts with persisting collectivism. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 695. doi:10.3389/fps.2017.00695

Oumlil, A. B., & Balloun, J. L. (2017). Cultural variations and ethical business decision making: A study of individualistic and collective cultures. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 32(7), 889-900. doi:10.1108/JBIM-08-2016-0194

Van Hoorn, A. (2015). Individualist-collectivist culture and trust radius: A multilevel approach. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46(2), 269-276. doi:10.1177/0022022114551053

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Question 


In what ways do the typical attributions of people from collectivistic cultures differ from those of people from individualistic cultures?

Self-efficacy and Individualist vs. Collectivist cultures

Self-efficacy and Individualist vs. Collectivist cultures

Why do these differences exist? Provide empirical evidence supporting your explanations.

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