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Qualitative Research

Qualitative Research

Phenomenology is the research study that aims at understanding participants’ living, subjective perspectives, and experiences. It offers information about an individual experience and is based on the notion that the same experience can be viewed in many different ways and that reality comprises of the experience and meaning to each participant. Phenomenology provides a complete and rich description of human meanings. Ethnographic research takes a cultural perspective to the study of people’s lives in the communities they live in (Richardson & Keogh, 2017).

The differences between phenomenological and ethnographical research include the latter focuses on individual experiences. Ethnography focuses on the community’s collective experience. In ethnography, data can be collected via artifact and document analysis, observations, and interviews. Phenomenology collects data via interviews. Ethnographic research can also take a long time than it would with phenomenology (Jackson et al., 2015).

Phenomenological studies are focused on what is important for the meaning of interaction, episode, and event. It is focused on understanding the voice of participants. There is usually a single main question. Sub-questions are used to help the orientation of the researcher in data collection and results’ framing. Ethnographic questions foreshadow the general perception and can be changed during the study. Participants in a phenomenological study are selected because they have lived the experiences being investigated, are willing to be part of the study, and can articulate their thoughts; participants will come from the same site. Purposeful sampling is used in ethnographic studies to select individuals with the most information and are not intended to represent a larger population. Data analysis in phenomenological studies commences with the experiences of researchers regarding the phenomenon. The researcher then identifies statements within the interviews that are in line with the interview. Units are created from the statements, and an overall description of the meaning of the constructed experiences is given. According to Jones and Smith (2017), ethnographic studies involve analysis that starts during the collection of data. The main goal is to seek patterns, explanations, ideas, and understandings. The researcher organizes and creates codes and then summarizes these and makes categories. A relationship between the patterns and categories is sought, and the researcher interprets the findings through induction, information synthesis, and drawing inferences.


Jackson, M., Timmer, J., Fisher, D., Bedford, I., Desjarlais, R., Van Heekeren, D., … & Downey, G. (2015). Phenomenology in anthropology: A sense of perspective. Indiana University Press.

Jones, J., & Smith, J. (2017). Ethnography: challenges and opportunities.

Richardson, I., & Keogh, B. (2017). The Ethnography and Phenomenology of Itinerant Interfaces. The Routledge Companion to digital ethnography, 211.


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Qualitative Research

The three types of qualitative research are phenomenological, grounded theory, and ethnographic research. Compare the differences and similarities between two of the three types of qualitative studies and give an example of each.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative Research

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