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Nursing Research

Nursing Research

The article involved a qualitative study investigating the experiences of African American women during their transition from being breast cancer patients to survivors. It is a qualitative study since the primary investigator collected data by engaging in a conversation with the study participants. Besides, qualitative studies involve researchers organizing their results per major themes identified in the data. The thematic analysis in qualitative studies is usually supported by the actual words from the study participants (Polit & Beck, 2018). This is evident in the article since the researcher organized the results into four themes that were supported by actual words from the breast cancer survivors.

A qualitative study design using grounded theory was appropriate for the study since it was easier to understand the experiences of the patients that are not in the literature. It is clear from the article that the study targeted African American women breast cancer survivors between the age of 35 years and 85 years and had completed treatment for a period of between 6 and 18 months before the study. Even though faith-based groups were targeted, participants of the START study were not faith-based groups. The primary investigator used telephone interviews at the most appropriate time for each participant. This made the participants participate in the interview without being worried about doing other activities.

A purposive sampling technique was used to obtain data on breast cancer patients’ experiences as they transition to being survivors. Purposive sampling is a method of non-probability sampling in which the researcher selects a particular group of an entire population to participate in a study (Ames et al., 2019). Community and support groups were used to recruit the participants from community settings based in Buffalo, South Carolina, and Charleston. Patients who had metastatic diseases, recurrent breast cancer, and other primary cancers were excluded from the study

Informed consent was utilized during data collection since the primary investigator explained the aim and procedure of the study to the participants, and they were allowed to stop the interview at any time. The participants were also allowed to decide whether their interview could be included in the data analysis or not. The patients who were interested in participating in the study were then mailed consent forms. The primary investigator collected data by conducting telephone interviews. The patients were asked about their experiences before and after the control of their breast cancer. Essentially, the researcher ensured they asked all the questions regarding the experiences of the patients.

During the data analysis process, the primary investigator transcribed the interviews. He also verified the transcripts with the audio files. NVivo 9.0 qualitative analysis software was used for constant comparison until recurrent themes were produced. To confirm the validity and reliability of the data obtained, transcripts and coded data were reviewed severally by the investigators to ensure agreement of themes. There was also a discussion between the authors and the audiences that were familiar with the population.

The article includes a discussion of all the important results based on apparent themes. As per the author of the article, a close relationship between breast cancer survivors is very beneficial. Moreover, capitalization on the needs of survivors can facilitate peer relationships among breast cancer survivors. The author recommends that research be done on whether cancer survivors can be trained and used as navigators. There is also the recommendation of the need to determine if health outcomes can be improved in breast cancer survivorship through peer navigation.

Regarding implications for nursing practice, nurses should use peers as direct support to design patient-centered interventions in patients who survive breast cancer. One of the possible researchable questions for further study is: What is the relationship between the duration of chemotherapy and the experiences of breast cancer survivors? The findings of such a study would help determine the effect of the duration of chemotherapy on the patients’ experiences. This can make nurses determine the level of care they should give breast cancer survivors depending on the duration of chemotherapy. The second researchable question is: What are the variations in the experiences of breast cancer survivors treated at different health facilities? The research findings of this study can help determine what makes patients have bad experiences in different healthcare facilities. This can help nurses prevent patients from having bad experiences after surviving breast cancer. The third researchable question is: What is the role of family caregivers in improving the outcomes of breast cancer survivors? The findings of this study can help in devising strategies that family caregivers can use to improve the outcomes among breast cancer survivors.


Ames, H., Glenton, C., & Lewin, S. (2019). Purposive sampling in a qualitative evidence synthesis: A worked example from a synthesis on parental perceptions of vaccination communication. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 19(1), 1–9.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2018). Essentials of Nursing Research Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice. In Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


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Nursing Research

Use the questions below to write a critique of your research article. Answer all questions that apply to the quantitative and/or qualitative study. The paper should be in narrative form.

Research Design:

  • Is the research quantitative or qualitative?
  • If quantitative is it experimental or non-experimental?
  • If it is a mixed-method design, did this approach enhance the study?

    Nursing Research

    Nursing Research

  • Is the design appropriate to answer the questions indicated by the problem and/or hypotheses?
  • Is the target population identified? Are eligibility criteria specified?
  • What type of sampling plan was used? What are the key characteristics of the sample?
  • Is the setting appropriate for the study?

Data Collection :

  • Is informed consent utilized?
  • Who collected the data?
  • How were the data collected? (survey, interview, etc.)
  • Are the measurement instruments or tools clearly described?
  • What statistical tests were utilized?
  • Is reliability (consistency) and validity (accuracy and precision of measurement instruments) addressed

Interpretation, Discussion, and Clinical Application:

  • Are all of the important results discussed?
  • State author’s conclusion and recommendations.
  • What are the author’s implications for practice?
  • Identify 3 researchable questions for further study.
  • State if and when/where you would put the research findings into practice.

Use APA format, and include a title page and a reference page. Use your research textbook to help you answer the questions and explain/define the terms. When doing a research critique, it is acceptable to put the reference for the article on the bottom of the title page. Includes a minimum of one reference from an English titled, peer-reviewed nursing journal (less than 5 years old) and one from the course textbook.


  • Title: Essentials of Nursing Research Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice
  • Author(s): Polit, D. F., & Beck C. T. (2018)
  • Publisher: Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer
  • Edition:9th
  • ISBN: 9781496375636

Do not cite the article within the body of the paper. All other resources (such as the research textbook) must be cited and referenced as usual.

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