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Neurology-Short answers

Neurology-Short answers

Question 1

The neuron has the following parts: dendrites, cell body, and axon. Dendrites are processes that tap or receive other neuronal impulses and conduct towards the soma or the cell body of the neuron. The cell body has the nucleus and maintains the thrive of a neuron. It also carries genetic information. The impulses are then transmitted via the axon, which is covered by myelin sheath, to the axonal terminal for transmission to another cell.

Question 2

The major components of the subcortical structures are the cerebellum and brain stem. The cerebellum is responsible for the balance and coordination of the body. The brain stem, on the other hand, is made up of three parts: the pons, midbrain, and medulla oblongata. The hippocampus is also a subcortical structure since it is located beneath the cortex. The hippocampus plays a major role in memory, addiction, and learning (Wingenfeld & Wolf, 2014). Dopamine neurotransmitter is released by the striatum once it has received motor input from the efferent fibers. This explains the Parkinsonian gait and tremors experienced by those with Parkinson’s disease. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitters are also released for inhibitory purposes.

Question 3

There are four types of glial cells. Ependymal cells help in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These cells form the lining of the central nervous system ventricles. Astrocytes act as a blood-brain barrier (Parpura et al., 2012). It protects the brain from toxic substances. Oligodendritic cells help in the formation of a myelin sheath. Microglial cells are responsible for protection against pathogens (Araque & Navarrete, 2010). It protects by transforming into a macrophage used for the destruction of neural debris.

Question 4

At the synapse area, communication happens in the dendrites and the axon terminals of two different neurons. The synaptic cleft is a space for the exchange of the neurotransmitters responsible for impulse transmission. When impulses are fired, the axon terminals of the presynaptic neuron release their neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These neurotransmitters then trigger the receptors of the neuronal dendrites (Stogsdill & Eroglu, 2017). The dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron receive these neurotransmitter signals, convert them to an electrical impulse, which causes an impulse trigger, and transmits them to the cell body of the neuron.

Question 5

Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain neurons to change structurally, functionally, and organizationally to accommodate new experiences (Demarin & Morovic, 2014). Every time there is a new concept, then the brain needs to adjust and make room for its integration. New pathways are then devised, and then repetitive conduction through these nerves helps in strengthening and rewiring the brain. The old pathways become weak and phase out.

References

Araque, A., & Navarrete, M. (2010). Glial cells in neuronal network function. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences365(1551), 2375-2381. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0313

Demarin, V., & MOROVIĆ, S. (2014). Neuroplasticity. Periodicum biologorum116(2), 209-211. https://hrcak.srce.hr/126369

Parpura, V., Heneka, M. T., Montana, V., Oliet, S. H., Schousboe, A., Haydon, P. G., … & Verkhratsky, A. (2012). Glial cells in (patho) physiology. Journal of neurochemistry121(1), 4-27. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07664.x

Stogsdill, J. A., & Eroglu, C. (2017). The interplay between neurons and glia in synapse development and plasticity. Current opinion in neurobiology42, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2016.09.016

Wingenfeld, K., & Wolf, O. T. (2014). Stress, memory, and the hippocampus. The Hippocampus in clinical neuroscience34, 109-120. https://doi.org/10.1159/000356423

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Question 


Neurology-Short answers

Assignment
Address the following Short Answer prompts for your Assignment. Be sure to include references to the Learning Resources for this week.
  1. In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.
  2. Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):
    • What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?
    • Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?
    • What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?
  3. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.
  4. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.
  5. In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.
Neurology-Short answers

Neurology-Short answers

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