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Musculoskeletal Function & Neurological Function Case Study

Musculoskeletal Function & Neurological Function Case Study

According to research, over 32.5 million people in the United States suffer from arthritis. According to various studies, osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis illness. This condition, also known as degenerative joint disease, primarily affects the hands, knees, and hips (Berenbaum, 2013). The disease manifests itself when the cartilage within the borne joins begins to deteriorate, causing the underlying bone to change. This type of arthritis causes pain, stiffness, and swelling in the affected area. At the same time, osteoarthrosis is a type of arthritis that affects synovial fluid-filled joints such as the knees, hips, and hands. Osteoarthrosis also affects the first metatarsophalangeal joints, which include the shoulders, ankle, and wrist (Berenbaum, 2013). The illness is common in the elderly. This arthritis causes stiffness, pain, and a tendency to gel with immobility in the affected areas. Mrs. G.J. is predisposed to osteoarthritis due to a number of factors, including her weight, age, repeated stress on her knee joint, and gender.

The most common types of arthritis that affect humans are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, there are several distinctions between the two illnesses. Osteoarthritis is caused by cartilage wear and tear in the borne joint (Park et al., 2018). The hard, slick covering on the ends of both bones that reduces friction is known as the joint tendon. When this cartilage is damaged, it causes bone wear and tear, resulting in osteoarthritis. Rheumatoid diseases, on the other hand, occur when the body’s disease-fighting system attacks the inner coating of the intersection capsule, which is a hard sheath that surrounds all bone joints. When these joint capsules are attacked, the synovial membrane swells and becomes inflamed. There are several risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis, including family history, age, gender, previous joint injuries, and obesity (Park et al., 2018). This condition primarily affects older women. This condition causes severe arthritis, especially in the hand and arm joints, impairing an individual’s ability to perform daily tasks. These bone joints can lose their alignment and shape in some cases.

Arthritis disease treatment alleviates the pain that patients may be experiencing. Thus, the effect of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment is indicated by very small or moderate random control trials. As a result, because not every patient benefits from the same medicine, osteoarthritis treatment is becoming more personalized. As a result, combining the two approaches promises positive outcomes for the patient. To reduce the risk of developing osteoarthritis, it is critical to educate the patient about the importance of therapeutic procedures and weight loss programs (Osteoarthritis Treatment, 2016). Losing weight can be accomplished through dietary exercises, which may be harmful to the borne. In addition, if the pain is manageable, the patient can engage in isotonic exercise such as biking, swimming, or walking. The patient can also receive pharmacological treatment, which includes the treatment of mild and intermittent symptoms (Osteoarthritis treatment, 2016). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be taken if the pain worsens. However, the risk of cardiovascular and ulcer complications is quickly assessed before administering NSAID drugs to the patient. Mrs. G. J. should not be treated with NSAIDs because she has ulcers that make her feel uncomfortable every time she takes this medication.

According to Langdahl (2018), patients with osteoporosis suffer from sudden bone fractures. This disease progresses without any symptoms, so the condition is undetectable until the bone fractures. Patients with osteoporosis experience symptoms such as loss of height, usually by one inch or more, change in body posture, shortness of breath, and bone fractures (Langdahl, 2018). Bone mineral density tests are used to diagnose this (BMD). The X-ray uses very little radiation to determine the strength of the spine, hips, and wrists. However, the results are always negative until the disease has spread for a long period of time. Patients suffering from these illnesses are treated with therapy that includes body exercise and mineral supplementation. Resistance and body balance activities, in addition to weight bearing, are essential. Bisphosphates, biologics, and anabolic agents are some medications that I would recommend to the patient.

Physiological Function

Alzheimer’s diseases are progressive neurological disorders that cause the brain to shrink and brain cells to die. Alzheimer’s disease, in most cases, causes dementia conditions characterized by decreased thinking, poor social skills, and behaviors that impair an individual’s ability to work solely. According to research, the illness is caused by an abnormal buildup of proteins around the brain. The risk of contracting Alzheimer’s disease rises with age, family history, poor health, head injuries, and heart disease. Furthermore, hearing loss, untreated depression, loneliness, and a sedentary lifestyle can all contribute to the illness.

Alzheimer’s diseases, as previously stated, are progressive neurological disorders that cause the brain to shrink. At the same time, the illness causes brain cell death. Alzheimer’s disease, in most cases, causes dementia conditions characterized by decreased thinking, poor social skills, and behaviors that impair an individual’s ability to work solely (Zvová, 2019). Vascular dementia, on the other hand, is a common type of dementia characterized by decreased plasma movement to the brain cell. Dementia is a term used to describe people who have problems with their mental abilities as a result of gradual changes and damage to the brain. However, the disease is uncommon in people under the age of 65. Dementia symptoms include slow thinking, difficulty planning and understanding, difficulty concentrating, and feeling disoriented and confused (Zvová, 2019). Simultaneously, Dementia with Lewy bodies is a nerve system condition characterized by a decline in intellectual functions. Movement problems, visual hallucination, changes in logical ability, and acting out thoughts while asleep are all symptoms of the condition. When people are between the ages of 65 and 85, they begin to develop this condition. A frontotemporal illness is another type of brain illness that refers to a group of mental illnesses. The frontal and temporal lobes of the brain are affected by this disease. Frontotemporal dementia symptoms include inappropriate socialization, being impulsive or emotionally different, and losing the ability to use language correctly.

Dew and Cabeza assert (2011). The brain’s long-term memory is divided into two categories: implicit memory and explicit memory. The two memories correspond to different states of awareness and involve different neural processes. However, research indicates that implicit memory influences explicit memory. Insensible memories are referred to as implicit remembrance. Because they involve emotional and perception behavior, unconscious memories are difficult to recall. Individual behavior is frequently influenced by this memory without the intention of retrieving these memories. Car driving, instrument playing, and muscle memories are examples of these memories (Dew & Cabeza 2011). Explicit remembrance, on the other hand, refers to conscious memories that a person can recall. This memory is divided into two categories: recollections of personal experiences and memorization of facts and information. Explicit memories include episodic memories, semantic memories, autobiographical memories, and spatial memories.

The national institute on Aging (NIA) diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease consists of three stages: dementia due to Alzheimer’s test, slight cognitive damage test, preclinical test, and test related to changes observed during autopsy. A dementia test assesses a person’s ability to function independently in everyday life (Beach et al., 2012). The new dementia test replaces the previous dementia test, which included neuropsychological examination, specific brain imaging, and CSF examination by brain experts. The second recommended texting method involves mild cognitive impairment testing, which measures the ability to think and is assessed using mental status tests (Beach et al., 2012). The test concludes with a reflection on current evidence that measures biomarker variations in the brain. Individuals’ thinking and behavior can be assessed using this test. There is no single treatment that manages Alzheimer’s illnesses in C.J. cases; however, dietary supplements and herbal remedies can improve the patient’s memory.


Beach, T. G., Monsell, S. E., Phillips, L. E., & Kukull, W. (2012). Accuracy of the Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease at National Institute on Aging Alzheimer Disease Centers, 2005–2010. Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 71(4), 266– 273.

Berenbaum, F. (2013). Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease (osteoarthritis is not osteoarthrosis!). Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 21(1), 16–21.

Dew, I. T., & Cabeza, R. (2011). The porous boundaries between explicit and implicit memory: behavioral and neural evidence. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1224(1), 174–190.

Langdahl, B. (2018). Pathophysiology of Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia, 4(4), S2.

Osteoarthritis: treatment. (2016). Rheumatology. Published.

Park, J., Mendy, A., & Vieira, E. R. (2018). Various Types of Arthritis in the United States: Prevalence and Age-Related Trends From 1999 to 2014. American Journal of Public Health, 108(2), 256–258.

Zvěřová, M. (2019). Clinical aspects of Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical Biochemistry, 72, 3–6.


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Musculoskeletal Function:
G.J. is a 71-year-old overweight woman who presents to the Family Practice Clinic for the first time, complaining of a long history of bilateral knee discomfort that becomes worse when it rains and usually feels better when the weather is warm and dry. “My arthritis hasn’t improved a bit this summer though,” she states. Discomfort in the left knee is greater than in the right knee. She has also suffered from low back pain for many years, but recently it has become worse. She is having difficulty using the stairs in her home. The patient had recently visited a rheumatologist who tried a variety of NSAIDs to help her with pain control. The medications gave her mild relief but also caused significant and intolerable stomach discomfort. Her pain was alleviated with oxycodone. However, when she showed increasing tolerance and began insisting on higher doses of the medication, the physician told her that she might need surgery and that he could not prescribe more oxycodone for her. She is now seeking medical care at the Family Practice Clinic. Her knees started to get significantly more painful after she gained 20 pounds during the past nine months. Her joints are most stiff when she has been sitting or lying for some time, and they tend to “loosen up” with activity. The patient has always been worried about osteoporosis because several family members have been diagnosed with the disease. However, nonclinical manifestations of osteoporosis have developed.

Musculoskeletal Function & Neurological Function Case Study

Musculoskeletal Function & Neurological Function Case Study

Case Study 1 Questions:

Define osteoarthritis and explain the differences with osteoarthrosis.

List and analyze the risk factors that are presented in the case that contribute to the diagnosis of osteoarthritis.

Specify the main differences between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and make sure to include clinical manifestations, major characteristics, joints usually affected, and diagnostic methods.

Describe the different treatment alternatives available, including non-pharmacological and pharmacological, that you consider are appropriate for this patient and why.

How would you handle the patient’s concern about osteoporosis? Describe the interventions and education you would provide to her regarding osteoporosis.

Neurological Function:
H.M. is a 67-year-old female who recently retired from being a school teacher for the last 40 years. Her husband died 2 years ago due to complications of a CVA. Past medical history includes hypertension controlled with Olmesartan 20 mg by mouth once a day. Family history is not contributory. Last annual visits with PCP with normal results. She lives by herself but her children live close to her and usually visit her two or three times a week. Her daughter started noticing that her mother is having problems focusing when talking to her. She is not keeping things at home as she used to, and often she is repeating and asking the same question several times. Yesterday, she had issues remembering her way back home from the grocery store.

Case Study 2 Questions:

Name the most common risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease.

Name and describe the similarities and differences between Alzheimer’s disease, Vascular Dementia, Dementia with Lewy bodies, and Frontotemporal Dementia.

Define and describe explicit and implicit memory.

Describe the diagnostic criteria developed for Alzheimer’s disease by the National Institute of Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association.

What would be the best pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches for H.M.?

Submission Instructions:

This assignment has 2 case studies. You must work and include both case studies in your initial post.

Your initial post should be at least 500 words for each case study, formatted and cited in the current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources other than your textbook. Your initial post is worth 8 points.

You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts. Use at least 1 academic source for each response to your peers other than your textbook. Your reply posts are worth 2 points (1 point per response). 

All replies must be constructive, and literature must be used accordingly. Your replies must be at least 150 words each.

Please post your initial response by 11:59 PM ET Thursday, and comment on the posts of two classmates by 11:59 PM ET Sunday.

You can expect feedback from the instructor within 48 to 72 hours from the Sunday due date. 

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