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Module 6 Discussion on Patient Case

Module 6 Discussion on Patient Case

OP is a 43-year-old female patient that visits the office complaining of vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse for a period of two months. She has had multiple sexual partners previously but has now been married for four years now. Two years ago, her cervical cancer screen showed positive results for HPV.

Diagnostic Testing

Post-sexual bleeding originates from the surface lesions in the genital tract, such as the cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN), carcinoma, cervicitis, ectropion, and cervical polyps. The patient has not reached menopause yet and has a history of type 16 HPV. A pap smear would thus be the most appropriate diagnostic testing, and this would aid in determining whether she should undergo a biopsy to check for pre-tumour or tumour. A colonoscopy is also recommended, especially for parents with HPV 18 or 16 in their abnormal pap results (Bedell et al., 2020).

Management of HPV

Management plan for HPV would entail both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. The pharmacological management would entail immunotherapy and this includes the generation of cellular immune reactions to deal with antigens that lead to the transformation of the cells (De Rosa et al., 2019). The intercession process would include the administration of immunomodulators that results in negative immune system reactions. The use of non-pharmacological approaches includes laser therapy, loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), cryotherapy, and conization.

Importance of HPV in Cervical Cancer Screening

HPV is important since the virus results in over seventy per cent of pre-tumour cervical lesions and cervical carcinomas (Sawaya, 2019). Cervical cancer screening seeks to determine cervical infection that has high-risk types that may have a high chance of causing cervical pre-tumours and tumours. Thus, it is important that patients that have tested positive for HPV are determined for clearance of the virus as part of the care and management plans (Sawaya, 2019).

Cancer Screening Recommendations

Sawaya et al. (2019) state that the United States Preventive Service Taskforce (USPSTF) recommends grade A where screening should be done every five years with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) alone, cervical cytology alone within every three years, or a combination of both cytology and hrHPV for women between 30 and 65 years.

Additional Parameters for Health Assessments

According to Bedell et al. (2020), when assessing patients for cervical tumours, healthcare practitioners need to ensure that psychological, emotional, and psychosocial parameters are considered for maximum health potential to be attained. Concerns and fear regarding cervical cancer may result in psychological and emotional effects on the patients. Thus, meeting these psychological, psychosocial, and emotional parameters is important for the general well-being of the patient.

Family Developmental Stages

Family developmental stages include the founding of the family, childbearing, rearing of the children, child launching, and empty nest (Osgood, 2019). The founding stage entails two individuals joining together and being dependent on each other for different things. Childbearing is giving birth to a child as a dependent member of the family. Child-rearing entails learning about the needs of the children as dependent members at different age stages. Child launching entails discarding the myths entailing marriage and love and increasing intuition and how to help the children prosper. The empty nest stage includes the partners adjusting their lives after several years of being parents, for example, adjusting to retirement and preparing to be alone after the children have left to seek their own lives.

Family Structure and Function in Health Care

Legal and genetic relationships among individuals living together make a family structure. The family is an important aspect in societal identification of support, persons, protection, survival, and protection. The family structure is important in shaping the emotional, psychological, and psychosocial health of its members (Liu et al., 2017). Liu et al. (2017) add that poor family structures and processes lead to psychological and emotional instability that results in distress and other illnesses.


Bedell, S. L., Goldstein, L. S., Goldstein, A. R., & Goldstein, A. T. (2020). Cervical cancer screening: past, present, and future. Sexual medicine reviews, 8(1), 28-37.

De Rosa, N., Giampaolino, P., Lavitola, G., Morra, I., Formisano, C., Nappi, C., & Bifulco, G. (2019). Effect of immunomodulatory supplements based on Echinacea Angustifolia and Echinacea Purpurea on the posttreatment relapse incidence of genital condylomatosis: A prospective randomized study. BioMed research international, 2019.

Liu, J., Dong, X., Nguyen, D., & Lai, D. W. (2017). Family relationships and depressive symptoms among older Chinese immigrants in the United States. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 72(suppl_1), S113- S118.

Sawaya, G. F., Smith-McCune, K., & Kuppermann, M. (2019). Cervical cancer screening: more choices in 2019. Jama, 321(20), 2018-2019.

Osgood, A. K. (2019). Family Demography: Macmillan Encyclopedia of Families, Marriages, and Intimate Relationships. Sociology Faculty Publications, 1.


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O.P. is a 43-year-old female patient who is seen at the office because she has been complaining of vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse for about two months now.

She stated she had been married for 4 years now but has had multiple sexual partners in the past and a positive history in her last cervical cancer screen (two years ago). She was positive for HPV type 16.

Module 6 Discussion on Patient Case

Module 6 Discussion on Patient Case

Discuss the appropriate diagnostic testing for the patient.

Develop the management plan (pharmacological and nonpharmacological).

Why is HPV the most important of cervical cancer screening in patients that have tested HPV positive?

According to the United States Preventive Service Taskforce (USPSTF) guidelines, what would be the cervical cancer screening recommendation for average-risk women in the age range for O.P., and at what age should women be screened?

Then, continue to discuss the 3 topics listed below for your case:

An effective health assessment incorporates not only physiological parameters; please suggest other parameters that should be considered and included in health assessments to reach maximal health potential in individuals.

Name the different family developmental stages and give examples of each one.

Describe family structure and function and the relationship with health care.

The post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in the current APA style, with support from at least 2 academic sources.

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