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Intimate Partner Violence among Adolescents

Intimate Partner Violence among Adolescents

Intimate partner violence has become common among adolescents, often leading to a lifetime of violence, either as perpetrators or victims. Girls face an increasing burden of physical, sexual, and emotional violence, which is often perpetrated by their male partners. Recognizing the widespread impact of this issue, several countries have passed laws prohibiting intimate partner violence among young people. This was followed by the provision of health, legal, and social services to victims of abuse. At the same time, few efforts have been made to prevent the occurrence of intimate partner violence in the first place. As a result, well-designed and precisely succinctly implemented services for victims will remain an invaluable undertaking. However, given the magnitude of the problem, prevention of IPV among adolescents will be critical, not only in reducing the burden of victims’ suffering, but also in lowering the long-term economic, human, and health costs of the violence. This means that primary prevention strategies and response services will need to be thoroughly evaluated and documented in order to be effective. Indeed, there is little coordination between programs and research agendas on social determinants, alcohol, and substance abuse, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence among adolescents and teenagers. However, these issues frequently affect families, with a greater recurrence in economically disadvantaged societies that also have high levels of gender inequality.

Review of Literature

Physical, psychological, emotional, or sexual abuse at the hands of a former or current partner is commonly referred to as intimate partner violence. A boyfriend, girlfriend, or dating partner may be such a partner among adolescents. Despite the fact that there appears to be a close relationship between sexual violence and intimate partner violence, the former can be committed by a wide range of perpetrators (Olshen et al, 2007). The current scarcity of evidence-based prevention initiatives is due in part to the separation of advocacy and research activities in this critical area. It is also due to a complex set of factors that increase the likelihood of such violence occurring in the first place. Contemporary social norms about masculinity, gender inequality, and economic inequality are among these factors. Other factors that contribute include drug and alcohol abuse, as well as early exposure to other types of violence, such as childhood violence and maltreatment (Decker et al, 2005).

According to Foshee et al. (2008), adolescent victims of intimate partner violence may suffer from physical injury, diminished self-esteem, health effects such as depression and anxiety, and suicidal thoughts. Sexually transmitted infections, substance abuse, gastrointestinal disorders, and pregnancy or gynecological complications are all possible side effects. It should be noted that these consequences may result in physical and mental disability, hospitalization, or even death. As a result, the issue of intimate partner violence among teenagers has risen to the top of many health and social practitioners’ policy agendas.

Teenage dating violence can be defined as a pattern of controlled behavior displayed by a teenager toward their intimate partner (Offenhauer & Buchalter, 2011). Physical abuse, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse are all examples of teenage dating violence. Slapping, kicking, punching, hitting, and shoving is all examples of physical abuse. Name-calling, yelling, issuing threats, isolating, ridiculing, stalking, and intimidation are all examples of emotional abuse. Recently, the use of technology has introduced new forms of emotional abuse, such as bullying and monitoring/spying via social media platforms. Finally, sexual abuse can take various forms, such as unwanted kissing or touching, as well as coerced or forceful sexual activity participation.

According to recent research, between 9% and 35% of adolescents are victims of intimate partner violence (Davis, 2008). The range is determined by the differences in the teen populations under study, as well as the definition of abuse in the study, which could be sexual abuse only or physical abuse and sexual abuse. The rate is also affected by whether teenagers are asked about all dating relationships or only their current intimate relationships. The range is also affected by whether researchers assess exposure to intimate partner violence without distinguishing between perpetration and victimization (O’Keefe, 2005). According to these studies, boys and girls are becoming more vulnerable to dating violence as they enter into intimate relationships with their partners. While girls are more likely than boys to initiate intimate partner violence, they are more likely than boys to experience emotional effects such as fear and serious injuries such as sexual abuse (Davis, 2008).

Teen dating violence is a common type of intimate partner violence. According to psychologists, dating violence among teenagers has become widespread, with far-reaching short- and long-term consequences. Many teenagers do not report this type of violence because they are afraid to tell their family, peers, and friends. According to a CDC study (2009), approximately 14% of males and 23% of females who had experienced physical violence, rape, or stalking by their intimate partner first experienced such violence between the ages of 11 and 17 years. Another survey conducted in 2013 discovered that nearly 10% of high school students had experienced physical victimization, while 10% had experienced sexual victimization at the hands of their dating partners within the previous 12 months (CDC, 2009).

According to a Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey conducted in 1997, 7% of high school boys and 20% of girls had experienced various forms of teen dating violence. It was also noted that abuse frequently escalated during pregnancy, with one report claiming that approximately 70% of parenting or pregnant teenagers are physically abused by their partners (Goodenow, 1998). It should be noted that violent relationships between adolescents can have serious consequences for the victims. Indeed, many of these victims are more likely to be abused again in adult intimate relationships. Such people are also more prone to risky sexual behavior, eating disorders, substance abuse, and suicide.

There are many subtle differences between intimate partner violence in adolescent relationships and violence in adult partner relationships. As a result, it may be incorrect to assume that violence between teen partners is a precursor to violence between adult intimate partners (Mulford & Giordano, 2008). For starters, teenagers are frequently newcomers to romantic relationships and, as a result, are more likely to lash out at their dating partners due to their apparent inability to express their feelings. The situation is also exacerbated by the teenagers’ lack of more effective coping mechanisms (Mulford & Giordano, 2008). According to Halpern et al. (2009), 7.1% of teenagers were victims of violence as teenagers and later as adults. According to the study, approximately 8% of the victims became victims as teenagers, and another 24% of the respondents became victims as young adults. As a result, the researchers concluded that early exposure to sexual activity may be an important factor in teenage victimization even into adulthood (Halpern et al. 2009).

Early exposure appears to be a factor in the onset of teenage dating violence, even though teenagers exposed to abusive relationships at a young age may have been coerced or forced to engage in sexual acts. In fact, according to a study conducted by Roberts et al. (2005), 69% of all teenagers who had engaged in sexual activity by the age of 14 had experienced some form of an abusive intimate relationship. Furthermore, more than 30% of teenagers who had engaged in sex by the age of 14 had experienced physical violence during their previous dating episodes (Finkelhor et al, 2009). Only about 20% of teenagers who had sex between the ages of 15 and 16 reported physical abuse, and this number dropped to 9% for those who were already older than 16 at the time of their first sexual encounter (Roberts et al, 2005).

Even though the available global evidence statistics on the prevalence of intimate partner violence appear substantial, the same cannot be said for the major risk and preventive factors. The current understanding of the main factors that contribute to intimate partner violence among teenagers is based primarily on research conducted in high-income countries, as well as several cross-sectional research studies that do not allow for a concise determination of causality. Thus, more research on risk factors in diverse cultural and socioeconomic contexts can only strengthen primary prevention and implementation strategies in low and middle-income regions (Coker et al, 2000).

According to the few research studies reviewed in the preceding sections, intimate partner violence among teenagers is caused by a variety of factors. In fact, there is no single factor that can explain why some teenagers are more vulnerable than others. Furthermore, no single factor can explain why this type of violence is more common in some contexts than others. One noteworthy point is that an individual’s susceptibility to intimate partner violence is influenced by factors at the relational, individual, and community levels (Silverman et al, 2004). Individual factors include beliefs, attitudes, biological factors, and personal history, all of which influence a person’s likelihood of becoming either a perpetrator or a victim. The major factors at the relational level revolve around how a person’s close social interactions affect their risk of violence. The major predisposing factors at the community level include the prevalent settings for social relationships such as schools, workplaces, and neighborhoods, as well as the characteristics of those relationships that cause or prevent the occurrence of violence (Olshen et al, 2007). Finally, societal factors encompass the underlying conditions within society that promote or suppress violence.

Discussion

Intimate partner violence prevention strategies for young adolescents and teenagers are not always limited to policies or programs whose primary goal is to reduce the occurrence rates of this type of violence. Indeed, policy and structural approaches to improving gender equality have the potential to influence levels of intimate partner violence, even if their effectiveness is unknown. However, a comprehensive understanding of effective approaches to the mitigation and prevention of dating violence among teenagers necessitates a thorough examination of several life-course factors. It also necessitates an assessment of factors that go beyond the individual level and can be changed to necessitate less intimate partner violence among teenagers and young adults. Reducing this type of violence can be accomplished through policy interventions at the individual, community, and school-based levels. Furthermore, the reduction can be achieved by effectively reducing exposure to alcohol and drugs, as well as the harm associated with them. Childhood maltreatment prevention is also effective in promoting healthy development and responsible relationships later in life. It is worth noting that preventing intimate partner violence in both adults and teenagers necessitates understanding how and why such violence occurs. Understanding how this type of violence is related to other types of collective, interpersonal, and self-directed violence should be part of this. Childhood maltreatment, such as emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, for example, increases the likelihood of violent behavior in adolescence and later in life.

Collaboration with youth and other teenage representatives from selected multiple groups is required for adolescents aged 11 to 19. The activity should be done on a regular basis. It is also critical to include parents, teachers, teenagers, and other important adult members in strategic planning. It is expected that once the major causes of intimate partner violence are addressed, there will be a significant decrease in rates of depression and anxiety. Second, it is prudent to maintain close monitoring of various youth groups that represent the economic, social, and cultural diversity of the youth. The collaboration should include regular web, phone, and in-person meetings. Given that adolescent reporting of intimate partner violence is a major issue, the establishment of certified intimate violence prevention centers will aid in teaching adolescents how to engage in nonviolent, healthy interpersonal relationships. This strategy can be evaluated by monitoring prevention contracts and tracking progress toward anticipated goals.

Most current programs aimed at reducing IPV among adolescents appear to take a multifaceted approach to the prevention of intimate partner violence among adolescents. However, there is a need to implement strategies that focus on identifying adolescent relationship norms, with specific reference to reference groups, and to focus local campaigns on such influences (Noonan & Charles, 2009). Social marketing campaigns are widely used in this regard to reduce adolescent alcohol and drug use. Indeed, research has shown that such approaches have resulted in small but significant improvements in reducing intimate partner violence among young people. As a result, policymakers and stakeholders must take a dual approach to promote healthy intimate relationships and reject violent relationships.

When working with depressed adolescents who have been victims of intimate partner violence, it is critical to understand the nature and impact of the trauma, as well as how the chosen practices can promote faster recovery. Victim safety planning should take into account complex community and individual factors such as feelings for the partner, available social support, safe housing, employment, and, if applicable, child custody. Intervention strategies must assist the victim in prioritizing safety by providing the necessary resources while maintaining confidentiality to protect the victim from further violence.

Conclusion

As evidenced by the findings of numerous research studies discussed in this paper, as well as the anticipated outcomes of the proposed project plan, it is possible that programs with long-term investment and greater exposure to ideas and concepts in a variety of settings often produce better results than discussions or single awareness-creation sessions. Before initiating and implementing any strategies aimed at mitigating or preventing the prevalence of intimate partner violence among teenagers, rigorous evidence must be sought in every setting. In cases where the prevalence of violence is obscured by alcohol and drug or substance abuse, a more dynamic evaluation may be required to determine whether alcohol and drugs are precursors to or the result of recurring violence. As evidenced by the findings of numerous research studies discussed in this paper, programs with long-term investment and greater exposure to ideas and concepts in a variety of settings may produce better results than discussions or single awareness-creation sessions. Before initiating and implementing any strategies aimed at mitigating or preventing the prevalence of intimate partner violence among adolescents, rigorous evidence must be sought in each and every setting. In cases where the prevalence of violence is obscured by alcohol and drug or substance abuse, a more dynamic evaluation may be required to determine whether alcohol and drugs are precursors to or the result of recurring violence.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Understanding teen dating violence: Fact sheet. Accessed from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/TeenDatingViolence2009-a.pdf.

Coker, L., McKeown, E., Sanderson, M., Davis, E., Valois, F., & Huebner, S. (2000). Severe dating violence and quality of life among South Carolina high school students. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 19, 3, 220-227.

Davis, A. (2008). Interpersonal and physical dating violence among teens. Focus: Views from the National Council on Crime and Delinquency.

Decker, R., Silverman, G., & Raj, A. (2005). Dating violence and sexually transmitted disease/HIV testing and diagnosis among adolescent females. Pediatrics. 116, 2, 272-276.

Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., & Hamby, S.L. (2009). Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth. Pediatrics. 124, 5, 1-13.

Foshee, A., Karriker-Jaffe, F., Reyes, M., Ennett, T., Suchindran, C., Bauman, E., & Benefield, S. (2008). What accounts for demographic differences in trajectories of adolescent dating violence? An examination of intrapersonal and contextual mediators. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 1, 596-604.

Goodenow, C. (1998). Massachusetts youth risk behavior survey, 1997. Malden, MA: The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education.

Halpern, T., Spriggs, L., Martin, L., & Kupper, L. (2009). Patterns of intimate partner violence victimization from adolescence to young adulthood in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 3, 508-516.

Halpern, T., Young, L., Waller, W., Martin, L., Kupper L. (2004). Prevalence of Partner Violence in Same-Sex Romantic and Sexual Relationships in a National Sample of Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 2, 124-131

Mulford, C. & Giordano, P. (2008).Teen dating violence: A closer look at adolescent romantic relationships. NIJ Journal, 261, 4, 34-40.

Noonan, R.K. & Charles, D. (2009). Developing teen dating violence prevention strategies: Formative research with middle school youth. Violence against Women, 15, 2, 1087-1105.

Offenhauer, P. & Buchalter, A. (2011). Teen dating violence: A literature review and annotated bibliography. A report prepared by the Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. New York: Research Division, National Institute of Justice.

O’Keefe, M. (2005). Teen dating violence: A Review of risk factors and prevention efforts. New York: The National Online Resource Center on Violence against Women.

Olshen, E., McVeigh, H., Wunsch-Hitzig, A., & Rickert, I. (2007). Dating violence, sexual assault, and suicide attempts among urban teenagers. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 161, 5, 539-545.

Roberts, A., Auinger, P., & Klein, D. (2005). Intimate partner abuse and the reproductive health of sexually active female adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36, 5, 380-385.

Silverman, G., Raj, A., & Clements, K. (2004). Dating violence and associated sexual risk and pregnancy among adolescent girls in the United States. Pediatrics, 114, 2, 220-225.

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Question 


The  Intimate Partner Violence in New Jersey

Directions: Perform a literature search/review for intimate partner violence. List annotated references for 3 articles you have reviewed that are related to your selected problem for the case study (will attach the case study). Select 1 quantitative research study article that addresses your selected problem (intimate partner violence) and summarize the article in a literature review table with one of the templates provided. Then in narrative paragraph(s) discuss the strengths and limitations of the study, what additional research is needed, and how this study relates to the problem you are addressing in your case study. Then based on your review of the literature propose two research questions and state PICO elements to address your problem. (3-5 pages not including title page and reference page).

Intimate Partner Violence among Adolescents

Intimate Partner Violence among Adolescents

NOTE: for this assignment avoid copying word for word what is stated in the research article. Try your best to restate information in your own words. If you are unable to do this use quotation marks. Be succinct and stay within the page limit.

Perform a literature search/review for your selected problem in the case study (intimate partner violence). List references for 3 articles you have reviewed that are related to your selected problem for the case study. Annotate with 1-2 sentences with information about the study.

5 points

Review of the Literature Table

1 research article – Address the following questions and present answers to questions in a Review of the Literature table with one of the provided templates (horizontal or vertical) to summarize the following components of the research study. (See also attached examples of a ROL table).

What is the research question, and what includes the hypothesis or purpose/aims? State PICO elements for the research question.

Quantitative studies PICO: P-Population I-Intervention C-Comparison group O-Outcome(s)

19 points

What is the study design? Why is this quantitative?

What is the research level for this study and why? [Cite the source of levels of evidence you are using. You can do this once in a footnote to the table.]

What are the results?

For QUANTITATIVE studies these should include both a numerical statement of the results (actual value, odds ratio, relative risk, etc.) and a statement of the statistical significance of the result (p-value or confidence interval).

Are the results statistically significant (p-values)? Why?

What is the conclusion? Do the results support the hypothesis?

The first column of the table: Include the full article citation in the first column before answering the questions. Provide an active link to an article or attach an article to Canvas.

Paragraph of discussion of an article reviewed

  1. How does this study relate to the problem you want to address?
  2. What are the strengths and limitations of this study?
  3. What gaps in knowledge are identified? What additional research is needed? (may include/integrate the other articles you reviewed along with the one in the table into the discussion)

7 points

 Research questions

  1. Propose two quantitative research questions that test interventions to address your problem. For each question list each PICO element and then write out your research question. Consider the evidence-based practice (EBP) strategies you discussed in assignment 3 and what you learned from these research studies as you develop your research questions. Research questions should include the PICO elements and include innovative strategies that haven’t been thoroughly researched. For example, don’t propose researching exercise as a strategy to reduce weight. Consider the various personal and public factors that contribute to your health problem as you develop your intervention. Research questions and interventions can be focused on the individual or community level.

6 points

Grammar and APA format for all references, 3-5 pages not including title page and references

2 points

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