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Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Non-Experimental Research

Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Non-Experimental Research

Experimental research is conducted scientifically using two sets of variables. The variables can be independent or dependent. The effect of independent variables on dependent variables is evaluated. This helps to create a conclusive relationship between them. The first type of experimental research is the pre-experimental research design. In this design, various dependent variables are observed after the application of independent variables (Rogers & Andrea, 2016). It doesn’t incorporate any control group. The second type is the True-experimental research design. It relies on statistical analysis to validate or disapprove a hypothesis. It is the most accurate experimental research design. It can be done with or without at least two randomly assigned dependent variables. It must contain a control group.

Quasi-experimental research is the other experimental research. It bears a resemblance to true-experimental research. The participants are not assigned randomly after the manipulation of the independent variable. Examples of quasi-experimental research design include the Counterbalanced design and the No-equivalent control group design (Bärnighausen et al., 2017). It is common in educational research when it is undesirable to randomly select students for experimental samples.

Non-experimental research lacks random assignment of participants and manipulation of independent variables. The researcher relies on observation, interpretation, or interactions to make a conclusion. Types of non-experimental research include cross-sectional, correlational, and observational research. Observational research entails monitoring behavior in a laboratory or natural setting without any manipulation (Richters & Melis, 2017). Correlational research entails measuring continuous variables without controlling any extraneous variables. An example is, collecting data on students’ self-esteem and their grades to determine if they are statistically related.

Experimental research differs from non-experimental in terms of setting, cause-effect relationship, variables, and characteristics. Variables can be manipulated in experimental research. This can’t happen in non-experimental research. The cause-effect relationship can be established in experimental research. It is impossible to do so in non-experimental research. Experimental research is controlled, quantitative and multivariable. Non-experimental can be qualitative, quantitative and it is uncontrolled. Quasi-experimental mainly involves a semi-controlled environment.


Bärnighausen, T., Tugwell, P., Røttingen, J. A., Shemilt, I., Rockers, P., Geldsetzer, P., Lavis, J., Grimshaw, J., Daniels, K., Brown, A., Bor, J., Tanner, J., Rashidian, A., Barreto, M., Vollmer, S., & Atun, R. (2017). Quasi-experimental study designs series—paper 4: uses and value. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 89, 21–29.

John, R., & Andrea, R. (2016). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs John 1 & 2 1. 1–16.

Richters, A., & Melis, R. J. F. (2017). Quasi-experimental study designs: making a case for non-experimental designs in the spectrum. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 91, 146.


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Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Non-Experimental Research

Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Non-Experimental Research

Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Non-Experimental Research

Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others.

When replying to peers, evaluate the effectiveness of the research design of the study for two of the examples provided.

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