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Discussion Response-Differential Diagnosis

Discussion Response-Differential Diagnosis

Great post! Auscultation refers to listening to the internal body sounds, often by using a stethoscope. The procedure is performed to examine the breath and heart sounds, respiratory systems, circulatory systems, and the alimentary canal. Auscultation is based on the characteristic sounds produced by the head and other body parts. The sounds are made by abnormal blood circulations, in roughened joint surfaces, in the pulse wave of the lower arm, and in the abdomen by intestinal disturbances or an active fetus. However, it is most commonly employed in diagnosing lung and heart diseases.

Healthcare practitioners listen for three organs in the body and these are the gastrointestinal system, lungs, and heart. When auscultating the heart, the practitioner will listen for abnormal sounds, including gallops and murmurs and their additional sounds that coincide with the normal heartbeats. The practitioner will also note the heart rate. Murmurs diagnose specific heart valve; that is, murmurs sometimes will reveal the specific heart valve that is the cause of an ailment. It may also reveal the weakness or disease of the heart muscles. Auscultation will also reveal the types of irregular heart rhythms and identify the sounds that are distinct for pericardium inflammation (Barrett et al., 2017). When auscultating the lungs, the practitioner will listen for sounds such as crackles, rales, crepitation, and wheezes. The gastrointestinal system is auscultated for bowel sounds (Sarkar et al., 2015).

In order to optimize the auscultation effectiveness, the surrounding environment ought to be quiet because noise could interfere with the lung and heart sounds. The room should be warm, and the patient should be as comfortable as possible while the upper torso is exposed; shivering should be avoided that could add to the noise. Appropriate lighting should be available as well to allow for good auscultatory and visual findings.


Barrett, M. J., Mackie, A. S., & Finley, J. P. (2017). Cardiac auscultation in the modern era. Cardiology in review25(5), 205-210.


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Sarkar, M., Madabhavi, I., Niranjan, N., & Dogra, M. (2015). Auscultation of the respiratory system. Annals of thoracic medicine10(3), 158.

Discussion Response-Differential Diagnosis

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Differential diagnosis is a process used by healthcare professionals to distinguish between two or more diseases that presents similar signs and or symptoms with the process of elimination. Differential diagnosis is an important basic factor in healthcare for things such as teaching, assessment, and research. It involves acts of selection, as the provider considers a patient’s illness and chooses which disorders to pursue further. According to Chiffi and Zanotti (2016), when making a differential diagnosis, it is important to take into account a limited and precise set of clinical possibilities, in order to rule out those possibilities that express incorrect diagnostic hypotheses. The three processes applicable in differential diagnosis to overcome error or misdiagnosis involves taking into account the patient’s full family history. Asking the patient if there is a family history of specific symptoms. This helps the practitioner to narrow down on the actual disease. The second process is conducting a thorough physical assessment. Body examination particularly the part that bothers the patient, head-to-toe assessment, and auscultation of internal organs. The third process is diagnostic testing. Family history and physical assessment already have given the provider an idea of what might be causing the symptoms. Laboratory testing is essential to rule out certain conditions.

These processes serve a meaningful purpose as guidance and a thorough understanding of the disease process (Schulman, 2018). Not all ailment is characteristic to family history, therefore, laboratory testing may be the only possible way of diagnosing a patient. Some disease presents hallmark symptoms and obvious presentation which can be ascertained from family history and physical assessment; other diagnostic procedures may not be necessary Example .

Discussion Response-Differential Diagnosis

Discussion Response-Differential Diagnosis

Chiffi, D., & Zanotti, R. (2016). Perspectives on clinical possibility: elements of analysis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 22(4), 509–514.

Schulman, J. S. (2018). What is differential diagnosis? Healthline. Retrieved from Differential Diagnosis Explained, Plus Examples (

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