**Descriptive Statistics**

**Calculate the Mean, Median, Mode, Variance, and Standard Deviation**

**Mean**

The mean is calculated using the formula`x =

*Systolic Pressure*

x = * *

x = 129 mmHg

*Diastolic Pressure *

x = * *

x = 76 mmHg

Therefore, the mean BP = 129/76 mmHg

**Median**

*systolic pressure *

123, 124, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134

Median = 131mmHg

*Diastolic Pressure*

70, 73, 77, 77, 78, 79, 79

Median = 77mmHg

Therefore, the median BP = 131/77 mmHg

**Mode**

*Systolic Pressure*

123, 124, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134

There is no mode.

*Diastolic Pressure *

70, 73, 77, 77, 78, 79, 79

The mode = 77, 79 mmHg

**Variance**

σ^{2} = * *

*Systolic Pressure *

* *σ^{2} = * *

= 16

__Diastolic pressure __

* *σ^{2} = * *

= 9

**Standard deviation (****σ)**

σ = √ * *

*Systolic Pressure*

* *σ =√ * *

= √16

= 4

*Diastolic Pressure*

σ =√ * *

*= *√9

= 3

**The Measure of Central Tendency Which Most Accurately Describes the Variable**

Since the data does not have a symmetrical distribution, the median would be the best measure of central tendency. There are extreme scores that impact on the mean. Extreme values drag the mean towards them, making the mean more extreme than the median. Hence, the mean would, not be a good typical value

**Describe the Spread/Distribution of Your Data**

Measures of dispersion/spread assess how much variation is present in the data. The range, variance, and standard deviation are useful in describing the spread.

The difference between the highest and lowest value obtained is the range, which is always accompanied by the median. The range for systolic pressure is 131 [134, 123], while for diastolic pressure, it is 77 [79, 70].

The standard deviation of the data collected is 4 mmHg for systole and 3mmHg for diastole. The standard deviation is the square root of a particular value and can either be positive or negative. Data points collected are on either side of the mean. The squares of these values (standard deviation) give the variance and vice versa.

The variance of the data is 16/9 mmHg. Variance measures how far away an individual data point is from the mean. It is the average of the squares of deviations from the mean. The square root of the variance gives us the standard deviation.

**Reported Health Statistics on the Variable**

Trends in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure collected by the American Heart Association from 1999 through 2016 showed the prevalence and burden of hypertension in the US adult population aged ≥20. The absolute burden of hypertension consistently increased from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. The proportion of controlled hypertension among adults on antihypertensive medication also increased in the same period. However, there was no consistent improvement in control among those with diabetes, high cardiovascular risk, or chronic kidney disease (Dorans, Mills, Liu, & He, 2018).

The American Heart Association (AHA) continuously collects and monitors heart disease data in the united states. The AHA does this in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health. They monitor statistics related to heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors, including health behaviors (smoking, diet, physical activity) and health factors (blood pressure and glucose control).

Blood pressure is important in assessing the risk of morbidity and mortality (WHO, 2020). Blood pressure is influenced by a number of factors, including age, sex, physical activity, diet, body position, etc. The 2017 AHA Hypertension guidelines recommend lower thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension.

**References**

Cook, A., Netuveli, G., & Sheikh, A. (2004). Basic Skills in Statistics: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London, GBR: Class Publishing. eISBN: 9781859591291. Available in Ebrary, accessed via Trident’s online library

Dorans, K. S., Mills, K. T., Liu, Y., & He, J. (2018). Trends in Prevalence and Control of Hypertension According to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(11). doi:10.1161/jaha.118.008888

Norman, G., and Streiner, D. (2008). Chapter The First: The Basics. (pages 2-6). Biostatistics The Bare Essentials. 3rd Edition. BC Decker Inc. PMPH USA, Ltd. Shelton, CT. eISBN: 9781607950585 pISBN: 9781550093476. Available in Ebrary, accessed via Trident’s online library

Warren RE, Marshall T, Padfield PL, Chrubasik S. Variability of office, 24-hour ambulatory, and self-monitored blood pressure measurements. Br J Gen Pract 2010;60 (578):675-680. Doi: 10.3399/bjgp10X515403

World Health Organization (WHO). (n.d.). Hypertension. Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hypertension

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**Question**

**Descriptive Statistics**

For the second SLP, using the data that you collected for the Module 1 SLP, please do the following:

- Calculate the mean, median, mode, variance, and standard deviation of the measurements taken in Module 1 SLP. Show your work and be sure to express each value in units.
- Discuss which measure of central tendency you think most accurately describes the variable that you measured. Provide a thorough explanation.
- Describe the spread/distribution of your data. Be sure to describe the variance of distribution and the concept of standard deviation as a measure of dispersion in your response.
- Conduct a scholarly search on the internet to find reported health statistics on the variable that you are measuring. For example, if you are measuring your total daily caloric intake, American Dietetic Association. Identify the source.

Submit your (2-3 pages) paper by the end of this module.

**SLP Assignment Expectations**

Assessment and Grading: Your paper will be assessed based on the performance assessment rubric. You can view it under Assessments at the top of the page. Review it before you begin working on the assignment. Your work should also follow these Assignment Expectations.