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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

COPD is one of the most common respiratory diseases that reduce the functional status of patients. Most of the strategies applied in the management of the disease are aimed at improving the functional status of patients. Collaborative management plays a vital role in improving the functional status of patients, thus reducing mortality. Different classes of medications have also proved to be efficacious when used in COPD patients.

In COPD, collaborative management strengthens and supports self-management while ensuring effective health maintenance, preventive, and medical interventions occur. As a result, collaborative management reduces the number of hospital visits among COPD patients (Benzo, 2012). An effective collaborative management program involves nutritionists, nurses, physicians, social workers, and exercise specialists. Patient education is an important element of collaborative management. It lets patients know how and when to use medications and several devices. Providing information about support groups, smoking cessation, traveling, and community resources should also not be ignored.

Different classes of medications are used in COPD. Both long- and short-acting selective β2-agonists are used for the relief of COPD symptoms. Examples of short-acting β2-agonists are terbutaline and salbutamol, while long-acting β2-agonists are formoterol and salmeterol. These drugs produce bronchodilation, thus relieving the symptoms associated with COPD, such as wheezing. Since antimuscarinics such as ipratropium bromide produce almost the same bronchodilation as β2-agonists, they are also effective when used in COPD patients. Methylxanthines such as theophylline and aminophylline have both bronchodilation and anti-inflammatory effects. Due to their anti-inflammatory effects, glucocorticoids such as budesonide, beclomethasone, and fluticasone are also effective in relieving the symptoms of COPD (Wedzicha et al., 2017). All these classes of drugs decrease the mortality of COPD patients when used appropriately.


Benzo, R. (2012). Collaborative self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Learning ways to promote patient motivation and behavioral change. Chronic Respiratory Disease, 9(4), 257–258.

Wedzicha, J. A., Miravitlles, M., Hurst, J. R., Calverley, P. M. A., Albert, R. K., Anzueto, A., Criner, G. J., Papi, A., Rabe, K. F., Rigau, D., Sliwinski, P., Tonia, T., Vestbo, J., Wilson, K. C., & Krishnan, J. A. (2017). Management of COPD exacerbations: A European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guideline. European Respiratory Journal, 50(4).


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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)


  1. Collaborative management
  2. Medication ( classification and rationale)

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