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Research Analysis

Research Analysis

Analysis of Inger’s Research

Using a hermeneutic and ethnographic research approach, Inger et al. (2010) sought to explore which forms of knowledge nurses often utilize and how they construct knowledge. Data was collected through interviews with 11 nurse assistances and 14 nurses, informal conversations, and participant observations. In general, the researchers discovered that nurses use lifelong learning to construct knowledge during their routine practice, which was categorized into techne, phronesis, and episteme. This implies that nurses customarily and regularly employ reasoning, decision-making, critical thinking, and problem-solving to construct knowledge.

For example, Inger et al. (2010) have clearly elaborated on how nurses often use problem-solving to select the best option from a range of alternatives and then implement it to address a pressing issue in the workplace. To solve a problem, the researchers discovered that nurses began constructing knowledge by first gathering what they know or are familiar with. The next step was to venture or make an excursion to the unknown.

Critical thinking refers to the objective evaluation and analysis of a problem to form a judgment – it is one of the problem-solving techniques nurses often employ, according to Inger et al. (2010). Critical thinking is evident, where the authors mention that the “central elements in the construction of knowledge were shown to be the continuous movement between the known and the unknown, consensus, questioning, openness, tack, play, understanding of the patient’s lifeworld, and context of time dimensions.” This statement implies that nurses often tend to make decisions after critically analyzing the available evidence, which is often gathered through interviews and interactions with other sources of evidence from books, journals, and observation (Polit & Beck, 2018). Nurses use all these techniques to authenticate their imaginations and ideas and “seek new knowledge.”

The authors continue to add that this strategy reflects the definition of evidence-based practice, which insists on incorporating sound judgments (decisions), patient preferences, and research evidence based on patients’ unique situations. This implies that nurses often make reasonable decisions by considering patients’ experiences, preferences, viewpoints, and what scientific evidence says about the decision (Fiset, Graham, & Davies, 2018). In addition, the researchers also found that nurses sometimes use reason and wisdom to integrate the different forms of knowledge, including techne, episteme, and phronesis.


Fiset, V. J., Graham, I. D., & Davies, B. L. (2017). Evidence-based practice in clinical nursing education: A Scoping Review. Journal of Nursing Education, 56(9), 534-541.

Inger, J. (2010). Knowledge constructions in nursing practice: Understanding and integrating different forms of knowledge. Qualitative Health Research, 20(11), 1500-1518.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2018). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.


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Research Analysis

Analyze the discussion section of the Inger research article for evidence of problem-solving, critical thinking, decision making, and reasoning (page 15 of PDF article).

Includes a minimum of one reference from an English titled, peer-reviewed nursing journal (less than 5 years old) and one from the course textbook.


  • Title: Essentials of Nursing Research Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice
  • Author(s): Polit, D. F., & Beck C. T. (2018)
  • Publisher: Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer
  • Edition:9th
  • ISBN: 9781496375636

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